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  • Bibliography
| Last Updated: :17/02/2017

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Title : "Detection of Low Level Microwave Radiation Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Vis-a-vis Genotoxicity in Brain of Fischer Rats.
Subject : Toxicol Int
Volume No. : 20
Issue No. : 1
Author : Deshmukh, P. S., K. Megha, et al.
Printed Year : 2013
No of Pages  : 19-24
Description : 

BACKGROUND: Non-ionizing radiofrequency radiation has been increasingly used in industry, commerce, medicine and especially in mobile phone technology and has become a matter of serious concern in present time. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the possible deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damaging effects of low-level microwave radiation in brain of Fischer rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed on male Fischer rats exposed to microwave radiation for 30 days at three different frequencies: 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz. Animals were divided into 4 groups: Group I (Sham exposed): Animals not exposed to microwave radiation but kept under same conditions as that of other groups, Group II: Animals exposed to microwave radiation at frequency 900 MHz at specific absorption rate (SAR) 5.953 x 10(-4) W/kg, Group III: Animals exposed to 1800 MHz at SAR 5.835 x 10(-4) W/kg and Group IV: Animals exposed to 2450 MHz at SAR 6.672 x 10(-4) W/kg. At the end of the exposure period animals were sacrificed immediately and DNA damage in brain tissue was assessed using alkaline  comet assay. RESULTS: In the present study, we demonstrated DNA damaging effects of low  level microwave radiation in brain.

CONCLUSION: We concluded that low SAR microwave radiation exposure at these frequencies may induce DNA strand breaks in brain tissue.


Title : "Effect of antioxidant supplementation on digestive enzymes in radiation induced intestinal damage in rats.
Subject : Int J Radiat Biol
Volume No. : 89
Issue No. : 12
Author : Anwar, M., N. Nanda, et al.
Printed Year : 
No of Pages  : 1061-1070
Description : 

PURPOSE: Intestinal mucosa, a rapidly proliferating tissue, is highly sensitive to radiation and undergoes apoptosis as a consequence of over generation of oxidative free radicals and the lack of the antioxidants. Thus the present study was designed to investigate the intestinal damage induced by radiation and to study if supplementation of the diet with antioxidant vitamins could ameliorate the intestinal damage and its digestive activity, as determined by the expression of various border enzymes.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Swiss Albino rats (150-200 g body weight) were divided into six groups. Group I: Control untreated; Group II: Irradiated; Group III: Irradiated + vitamin A; Group IV: Irradiated + vitamin C; Group V: Irradiated + vitamin E; and Group VI: Irradiated + lycopene. Animals were exposed to whole body gamma-radiation from (60)Co at the rate of 8 Gy for 15 min/rat. Intestinal morphology and changes in various digestive enzymes together with, DNA damage was studied in six groups and each group consisted of 18 animals. RESULTS: The gastrointestinal toxicity resulted in malabsorption, diarrhoea, weight loss, loss of appetite, abdominal haemorrhage and hair loss. The activities of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase were elevated and those of lactase, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or tranferase (gamma-GTP) were markedly reduced. Antioxidant vitamin A, C or E supplementations prevented changes in brush border enzyme activities as compared to lycopene administration in rat intestine by radiation exposure. Intestinal histology showed that the vitamin supplementation to irradiated rats minimized the intestinal damage in rats.

CONCLUSION:

These findings suggest that the epithelial lining of the intestine is highly sensitive to radiation exposure and supplementation of antioxidant vitamins is helpful in minimizing the intestinal damage and supplementation by vitamin E was most potent in ameliorating the intestinal aberrations.


Title : "Evaluation of multi-organ DNA damage by comet assay from 28 days repeated dose oral toxicity test in mice: A practical approach for test integration in regulatory toxicity testing.
Subject : Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume No. : 58
Issue No. : 1
Author : Kushwaha, S., D. N. Tripathi, et al.
Printed Year : 2010
No of Pages  : 145- 154
Description : 

The use of comet assay is not new in the evaluation of genotoxic potential of different agents; however, its broad use in product safety for regulatory testing is a relatively new approach. The present study was aimed to integrate genotoxicity tests (micronucleus and comet assay) in 28 days repeated dose oral toxicity of methotrexate (MTX) in mice. MTX was administered at the dose of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg per  oral repeatedly for 28 days in mice. The endpoints of evaluation for routine toxicity testing included body weight, organ weight, food intake, water intake, hematology and histology, while for the genotoxicity testing micronucleus and comet assay were used. There were no significant changes in food intake, water intake and organ weight; however, the body weight significantly decreased at the highest dose of MIX treatment as compared to control group. Histological data revealed the morphological alterations in the liver and lung cells at the highest dose of  MTX treatment. Micronucleus assay results indicated that the highest dose of MIX led to significant increase in MNERT5/1000ERTs (P < 0.001) as compared to control group. Further, percentage of reticulocytes (% RETs) was significantly decreased at the highest dose of MTX as compared to control group. Comet assay results indicate significant DNA damage in different organs induced by MIX as compared to control group. The results of the present study successfully demonstrates the integration of genotoxicity tests using comet and micronucleus assay in 28 days repeated dose oral toxicity test. Integration of genotoxicity test with routine toxicity test would reduce the cost of additional animals, test item and provide further information at an early stage of product development. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.  


Title : "Evaluation of multi-organ DNA damage by comet assay from 28 days repeated dose oral toxicity test in mice: A practical approach for test integration in regulatory toxicity testing.
Subject : Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume No. : 58
Issue No. : 1
Author : Kushwaha, S., D. N. Tripathi, et al.
Printed Year : 2010
No of Pages  : 145- 154
Description : 

The use of comet assay is not new in the evaluation of genotoxic potential of different agents; however, its broad use in product safety for regulatory testing is a relatively new approach. The present study was aimed to integrate genotoxicity tests (micronucleus and comet assay) in 28 days repeated dose oral toxicity of methotrexate (MTX) in mice. MTX was administered at the dose of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg per  oral repeatedly for 28 days in mice. The endpoints of evaluation for routine toxicity testing included body weight, organ weight, food intake, water intake, hematology and histology, while for the genotoxicity testing micronucleus and comet assay were used. There were no significant changes in food intake, water intake and organ weight; however, the body weight significantly decreased at the highest dose of MIX treatment as compared to control group. Histological data revealed the morphological alterations in the liver and lung cells at the highest dose of  MTX treatment. Micronucleus assay results indicated that the highest dose of MIX led to significant increase in MNERT5/1000ERTs (P < 0.001) as compared to control group. Further, percentage of reticulocytes (% RETs) was significantlydecreased at the highest dose of MTX as compared to control group. Comet assay results indicate significant DNA damage in different organs induced by MIX as compared to control group. The results of the present study successfully demonstrates the integration of genotoxicity tests using comet and micronucleus assay in 28 days repeated dose oral toxicity test. Integration of genotoxicity test with routine toxicity test would reduce the cost of additional animals, test item and provide further information at an early stage of product development. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 


Title : "Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals: A Review.
Subject : Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Volume No. : 7
Issue No. : 3
Author : Tapas, A. R., D. M. Sakarkar, et al.
Printed Year : 2008
No of Pages  : 1089-1099
Description : 

Phenolic compounds form one of the main classes of secondary metabolites. They display a large range of structures and are responsible for the major organoleptic characteristics of plant-derived foods and beverages, particularly color and taste properties. They also contribute to the nutritional qualities of fruits and vegetables. Among these compounds, flavonoids constitute one of the most ubiquitous groups of plant phenolics. Owing to their importance in food organoleptic properties and human health, a better understanding of their structures and biological activities indicates their potentials as therapeutic agents and also for predicting and controlling food quality. Due to the variety of pharmacological activities in the mammalian body, flavonoids are more correctly referred as "nutraceuticals". 


Title : "Formulation of a nasogastric liquid feed and shelf-life extension using gamma radiation.
Subject : J Food Prot
Volume No. : 77
Issue No. : 8
Author : Hajare, S. N., S. Gautam, et al.
Printed Year : 
No of Pages  : 1308-1316.
Description : 

Nasogastric liquid feed formulation (NGLF) was developed for immunocompromised patients who are vulnerable targets of pathogenic assault. NGLF consisted of cereals, pulses,vegetables, and milk powder to provide balanced nutrients; however, the shelf life was only a few hours because this product was highly prone to microbial contamination andproliferation due to its high water content and rich nutrients. Postpreparation storage anddistribution was very difficult, even at chilled temperatures. To overcome this problem, the

NGLF was irradiated at various doses (2.5 to 10 kGy). Gamma irradiation at 10 kGy reducedthe microbial load to nondetectable levels, and the product could be stored up to 1 monthwithout any detectable increase in microbial load. The sensory evaluation did not indicatedifferences between the nonirradiated fresh, irradiated fresh, and stored samples.Nutritional quality in terms of total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, proteins, calories, vitaminsA and C, and the micronutrients calcium, iron, and zinc was not affected by irradiation.

 

NGLF also possessed antimutagenic potential against ethylmethanesulphonate-inducedmutagenesis in Escherichia coli cells as evaluated by the rifampin resistance assay. Thisproperty of NGLF remained unchanged even after exposure to a 10-kGy dose of gammaradiation. Thus, irradiated NGLF seemed to be a safe and wholesome food forimmunocompromised patients.

 


Title : "In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves.
Subject : Food and Chemical Toxicology
Volume No. : 47
Issue No. : 9
Author : Verma, A. R., M. Vijayakumar, et al.
Printed Year : 2009
No of Pages  : 2196-2201
Description : 

The antioxidant potency of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems, such as P-Carotene bleaching, reducing power, DPPH/superoxide/hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelation and lipid peroxidation. On the basis of in vitro antioxidant properties polyphenolic fraction of M. oleifera leaves (MOEF) was chosen as the potent fraction and used for the DNA nicking and in vivo antioxidant properties. MOEF shows concentration dependent protection of oxidative DNA damage induced by HO(center dot) and also found to  inhibit the toxicity produced by CCl(4) administration as seen from the decreased lipid peroxides (LPO) and increased glutathione (GSH) levels. Among the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were restored to almost normal levels compared to CCl(4) intoxicated rats. The HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ellagic and ferulic acid) and flavonoids (kaempferol. quercetin and rutin). Thus, it may be concluded that the MOEF possess high phenolic content and potent antioxidant properties, which may be mediated through direct trapping of the free radicals and also through metal chelation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  


Title : "Low cost microbioassay test for assessing cytopathological and physiological responses of ciliate model Paramecium caudatum to carbofuran pesticide.
Subject : Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Volume No. :  90
Issue No. : 1
Author : Hussain, M. M., N. R. Amanchi, et al.
Printed Year : 2008
No of Pages  : 66-70
Description : 

One of the major changes that have occurred over the past few years is the re-
examination of conventional methods and the global  demand for innovative low cost bioassay
tests for assessing water quality, toxicity evaluation and bioremediation. In the present study
acute toxicity, physiological and cytotoxic impact  of carbofuran to a commonly occurring fresh
water ciliate was measured. Intrinsic cytotoxicity was evident on macro nuclear apparatus that
exhibited deformities such as fragmentation, deep incision, vacuolization and degenerative
macronucleus. Depletion in the food vacuole formation of Paramecia was evident. Changes in the
pulsatory vacuole activity of Paramecium caudatum, highlighted dose dependent response by the
test compound. The simplicity of handling this ciliate makes unicellular eukaryote, an alternative
organism for the toxicity assessment of pollutants. The tests carried in this study are simple and
fast, a bioassay that gives overall information about the physiological and cytotoxic effects of
carbofuran to P. caudatum. Such bioassay tests using ciliates are more suitable for risk
assessment of water quality, early detection of water pollution and possible role of ciliates as
bioindicators and strategic tools in the bioremediation of water bodies. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All
rights reserved.


Title : "Phylogenetic analysis and molecular dating suggest that Hemidactylus anamallensis is not a member of the Hemidactylus radiation and has an ancient Late Cretaceous origin.
Subject : Plos One
Volume No. : 8
Issue No. : 5:e60615
Author : Bansal, R. and K. P. Karanth
Printed Year : 2013
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

BACKGROUND OF THE WORK: The phylogenetic position and evolution of Hemidactylus anamallensis (family Gekkonidae) has been much debated in recent times. In the past it has been variously assigned to genus Hoplodactylus (Diplodactylidae) as well as a monotypic genus 'Dravidogecko' (Gekkonidae). Since 1995, this species has been assigned to Hemidactylus, but there is much disagreement between authors regarding its phylogenetic position within this genus. In a recent molecular study H. anamallensis was sister to Hemidactylus but appeared distinct from it in both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. However, this study did not include genera closely allied to Hemidactylus, thus a robust evaluation of this hypothesis was not undertaken.

 

METHODS: The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic position of H. anamallensis within the gekkonid radiation. To this end, several nuclear and mitochondrial markers were sequenced from H. anamallensis, selected members of the Hemidactylus radiation and genera closely allied to Hemidactylus. These sequences in conjunction with published sequences were subjected to multiple phylogenetic analyses. Furthermore the nuclear dataset was also subjected to molecular dating analysis to ascertain the divergence between H. anamallensis and related genera.

 

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results showed that H. anamallensis lineage was indeed sister to Hemidactylus group but was separated from the rest of the Hemidactylus by a long branch. The divergence estimates supported a scenario wherein H. anamallensis dispersed across a marine barrier to the drifting peninsular Indian plate in the late Cretaceous whereas Hemidactylus arrived on the peninsular India after the Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate. Based on these molecular evidence and biogeographical scenario we suggest that the

genus Dravidogecko should be resurrected.


Title : "Radiation-induced conformational changes in chromatin structure in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Subject : Int J Radiat Biol
Volume No. : 
Issue No. : 
Author : Jain, V., P. A. Hassan, et al.
Printed Year : 2014
No of Pages  : 1-9
Description : 

Background: Ionizing radiation induces a plethora of DNA damage including double-strand breaks (DSB) that may trigger a series of events such as transcription, DNA repair and alteration in the conformation of chromatin structure in human cells. We have made an attempt to study the conformational changes in chromatin fibers in irradiated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) as a new tool. Materials and methods: Venous blood samples were collected from 10 random, healthy individuals with written informed consent, approved by institutional ethics committee. PBMC were separated from blood, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation from 0.25- 1.0 Gy. Native chromatin was isolated from irradiated PBMC and changes in the hydrodynamic diameter of the chromatin fiber were measured using DLS. Both dose response and time kinetics was studied in order to see the chromatin changes. Radiationinduced DNA double-strand breaks were measured using gamma-H2AX (histone 2A member X) as a biomarker using flow cytometry and foci were visualized in confocal microscopy.

Results: A significant alteration in hydrodynamic diameter of the chromatin fiber was observed at lower doses (0.25 and 0.50 Gy), whereas at higher dose (1.0 Gy), the size of the chromatin fiber was comparable to unirradiated control. Among the 10 individuals studied, five individuals showed significant increase (p </= 0.002) in hydrodynamic size at 0.25 Gy whereas four individuals showed significant decrease (p </= 0.009) at 0.25 Gy. One individual did not show any significant difference as compared to control. However, dose-dependent increase in gamma-H2AX fluorescence signals as well as foci number was observed. Increased fragmentation of chromatin fiber was also observed using Atomic Force Microscopy at higher doses. Conclusion: Radiation-induced DNA damage response can lead to individual specific conformational changes in chromatin structure at lower doses (0.25 Gy and 0.50 Gy) which can be detected using dynamic light scattering method in resting human PBMC.


Title : "The efficacy of nardostachys jatamansi against the radiation induced haematological damage in rats.
Subject : J Clin Diagn Res
Volume No. : 7
Issue No. : 6
Author : Gowda, D. K., L. Shetty, et al.
Printed Year : 
No of Pages  : 982-986.
Description : 

INTRODUCTION: Radiation is increasingly being used for medical purposes and it is an established weapon in the diagnosis and the therapy of cancer. An exposure to 1-2 Gys causes the NVD (Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea) syndrome, whereas an exposure to 2-6 Gys causes the haematopoietic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the Nardostachys jatamansi root extract (NJE) on the radiation induced haematological damage in rats.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS: EBR was performed at the Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, India. Rats were treated with NJE once daily for 15 days before and after the irradiation. After the irradiation, blood was collected for determining the peripheral blood counts (RBC and WBC), haemoglobin, the platelet count and the packed cell volume (PCV) at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 5, 10 and 15 days post irradiation. The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey's test for multiple comparisons.

 

RESULT: NJE provided protection against the radiation induced haematological disorders. The rats treated with NJE exhibited a time dependent significant elevation in all the haematological parameters which were studied and its modulation upto the near normal level was recorded.

 

CONCLUSION: From this study, we concluded that, NJE provides protection by modulating the radiation induced damage on the haematopoietic system.


Title : "Toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Milletia ferruginea (Hochst) seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates.
Subject : European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Volume No. : 13
Issue No. : 3
Author : Karunamoorthi, K., D. Bishaw, et al.
Printed Year : 
No of Pages  : 179-185
Description : 

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Birbira [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Milletia ferruginea] seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates, Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant; Milletia ferruginea pulverized seeds have been used for fish poisoning since time  immemorial. Macroinvertebrates are important biological indicators of alteration in the natural water sources. Milletia ferruginea seed extract was applied at concentrations of 125, 250, 500 1000 and 2000 ppm on Hydropsychididae whereas Baetidae were exposed at various concentrations viz., 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 & 500 ppm. Milletia ferruginea seeds crude extract of lethal doses (LC(50) and LC(90)) required for Baetidae 49.29 mg/l and 172.52 mg/l were respectively and the respective doses (LC(50) and LC(90)) against Hydropsychidae were 679.64 mg/l and 2383.93 mg/l. The present investigation end result demonstrated that Milletia ferruginea seed extracts were extremely toxic to Baetidae than Hydropsychididae. As a result, application of Milletia ferruginea seed extracts into the rivers/streams for fish poisoning possibly leads to contamination and disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the concerned authorities should launch appropriate awareness campaign among the local inhabitants and  fisherman about adverse effect of Birbira seed extracts. Furthermore, providing alternative ecofriendly techniques for fish harvesting may possibly bring constructive out come in the near future.  


Title : "Trace element-based food value evaluation in soft and hard shelled mud crabs.
Subject : Food and Chemical Toxicology
Volume No. : 47
Issue No. : 11
Author : Mohapatra, A., T. R. Rautray, et al.
Printed Year : 2009
No of Pages  : 2730-2734
Description : 

Concentrations of 10 elements were studied from the pre-moult hard shelled and newly moulted (soft shelled) crabs (Scylla serrata) by the (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) EDXRF technique. The study evaluated the composition of all 10 elements from the body tissues and the exuvium of soft shelled and the carapace of pre-moulted hard-shelled crabs in order to evaluate the food value from nutritional and safety point of view for human consumption. The essential elements like K, Ca, Mn, Cu, etc., get reabsorbed from the carapace to the body tissues in order to meet the further requirement in the soft shelled crabs and are also utilized to some extent during the formation of new carapace, toxic  element like Pb gets excreted during exuviation and element like Zn gets regulated, as and when become higher in bioavailable form. This study gives evidence that, the freshly moulted soft shelled crabs are more safe and nutritious than the hard-shelled crabs. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  


Title : "Use of essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. to control storage moulds and insects in stored chickpea.
Subject : Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Volume No. : 89
Issue No. : 15
Author : Kumar, A., R. Shukla, et al.
Printed Year : 2009
No of Pages  : 2643-2649
Description : 

BACKGROUND: Fungal contamination and Callosobruchus infestation results in qualitative and quantitative losses of chickpea seeds during storage. Most of the synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have adverse effects. Therefore, the antifungal and insecticidal potential of Mentha arvensis essential oil was evaluated to determine whether this could be an eco-friendly substitute of synthetic preservatives.
RESULTS: The stored chickpea seeds were dominated by Aspergillus flavus (46.1%) and 30%isolates among them were found toxigenic. The MIC of Mentha oil against A. flavus was recorded at 400 mu L L(-1) and it exhibited broad fungitoxic activity against 14 storage fungi. The oil was found superior to some prevalent synthetic fungicides. Mentha oil showed potent insecticidal activity against Callosobruchus chinensis at different concentrations and exposure times. The oviposition by C. chinensis was completely checked at 10 mu L L(-1) while F(1) emergence was completely inhibited at 200 mu L L(-1). During in situ experiments, 94.05% protection of the chickpea from C. chinensis by Mentha oil showed superiority over the organophosphate insecticide malathion, where 90.75% protection was recorded.
CONCLUSION: The Mentha EO showing potent fungitoxic and insecticidal efficacy and may be recommended as a plant-based preservative in the management of fungal and insect infestation of chickpea and other pulses during storage. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry


Title : 2-Deoxy-D-glucose and ferulic acid modulates radiation response signaling in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Subject : Tumour Biol
Volume No. : 34
Issue No. : 1
Author : Bandugula, V. R. and R. P. N
Printed Year : 2013
No of Pages  : 251-259
Description : 

Previously, we reported the radiosensitizing potential of the combination of 2-deoxy-Dglucose (2DG) and ferulic acid (FA) in NCI-H460 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in vitro. The present study aims to explore the relevant mechanism of cell death induced by the combination of 2DG and FA along with irradiation in NCI-H460 cells. Incubation of NCI-H460 cells with the combination of 2DG and FA for 24 h before irradiation upregulated the expression of proapoptotic proteins p53 and Bax. Combination of 2DG and FA also increased the levels of p21 and GADD45A in NCI-H460 cells. DNA repair inhibition is expected to be a possible mechanism for the radiosensitization observed, which is evidenced by the downregulation of radiation-induced ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene expression upon treatment with 2DG and/or FA. Moreover, Western blotting analysis of NF-kappaB and caspase-3 revealed the involvement of apoptotic signals in the cytotoxicity exhibited by the combination of 2DG and FA. Cell cycle analysis data also showed the increased percentage of Sub-G(0) phase cells upon treatment with the combination of 2DG and FA before irradiation. Taken together, the results of our study clearly suggested that the cell death induced by the combination of 2DG and FA along with irradiation would involve alteration in expression of p53, p21, NF-kappaB, Bax, and caspase-3, indicating oxidative mechanism in NCI-H460 cells.


Title : 3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl bis-benzimidazole derivative, mitigates radiation-induced DNA damage.
Subject : Radiat Res
Volume No. : 179
Issue No. : 6
Author : Ranjan, A., N. Kaur, et al.
Printed Year : 2013
No of Pages  :  647-662
Description : 

Radiation-induced DNA damage initiates a series of overlapping responses that include DNA damage recognition and repair, induction of cell cycle checkpoints, senescence and/or apoptosis. This study assessed the DNA damage response and whole genome expression profile in two mammalian cell lines (HEK and U87) in response to (5-{4-methylpiperazin-1-yl}-2-[2'-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5'-benzimidazolyl] benzimidazole) DMA and ionizing radiation. DMA has been shown to act as a potent radiation protector, yielding significant levels of protection, i.e., 20.9% in HEK cells and 21.2% in U87 cells. Our findings revealed treatment with DMA significantly reduced gamma-H2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51 foci formation after irradiation. MAP kinase, WNT signaling and p53 pathways were found to be activated in DMA-treated cells. In addition, the DNA damage response genes, HSP70, HSPD1, PRDX1, PRX, CALR, NPM, UBC, and SET showed differential regulation in DMA, DMA + radiation and radiation-treated cells. The data suggest that DMA-influenced repertoire of repair proteins, which are an indispensable part of the cell, interplay with each other to reduce DNA damage and maintain the genomic integrity of the cell.


Title : 60Co-gamma radiation induces differential acetylation and phosphorylation of histones H3 and H4 in wheat.
Subject : Plant Biol (Stuttg)
Volume No. : 14
Issue No. : 1
Author : Raut, V. V. and J. K. Sainis
Printed Year : 2012
No of Pages  : 110-117
Description : 

Histone modifications occur during DNA damage and repair in eukaryotes. These modifications were analysed in wheat seedlings exposed to (60) Co-gamma radiation. Seedling height was not significantly affected in the first 2 days after irradiation up to 150 Gy. Subsequently, in the next 2 weeks, there was 30-40% reduction in seedling height, indicating that there were late effects of irradiation. The histones isolated from irradiated seedlings were analysed in the initial stages for modifications of H3 and H4 using antibodies. Global acetylation of H3 decreased and H4 increased in a dose-dependent manner till 100 Gy. The time course of individual modifications showed that for H3K4 and H3K9, acetylation decreased, whereas for H3S10 phosphorylation increased. There were fluctuations in acetylation of H4K5, H4K12 and H4K16, whereas H4K8 showed hyper-acetylation. The results indicate that gamma radiation induced DNA damage and repair in wheat seedlings and initiated differential acetylation of H3 and H4. This is the first report in plants on site-specific H3 and H4 modifications in response to exposure to ionizing radiation.

 


Title : A 90 days oral toxicity of imidacloprid in female rats: Morphological, biochemical and histopathological evaluations.
Subject : Food and Chemical Toxicology
Volume No. : 48
Issue No. : 5
Author : Bhardwaj, S., M. K. Srivastava, et al.
Printed Year : 2010
No of Pages  : 1185-1190
Description : 

A 90 days oral toxicity study of imidacloprid was conducted in female rats with doses of 0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg/day. Decrease in the body weight gain was observed at 20 mg/kg/day and at necropsy the relative body weights of liver, kidney and adrenal was also significantly increased at this dose level. No mortality occurred during treatment period while food intake was reduced at high dose level. In clinical chemistry parameters high dose of imidacloprid has caused significant elevation of serum GOT, GFT, glucose and BUN and decreased the activity of AChE in serum and brain. The spontaneous locomotor activity was also decreased at highest dose exposure where as there were no significant changes in hematological  and urine parameters. The brain, liver and kidney of rats exposed with high dose of imidacloprid had showed mild pathological changes. Based on the morphological, biochemical, hematological and neuropathological studies it is evident that imidacloprid has not produced any significant effects at 5 and 10 mg/kg/day doses but induced toxicological effects at 20 mg/kg/day to female rats. Hence, 10 mg/kg/day dose may be considered as no observed effect level (NOEL) for female rats. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  


Title : A comparison of two techniques for calculating groundwater arsenic-related lung, bladder and liver cancer disease burden using data from Chakdha block, West Bengal.
Subject : Applied Geochemistry
Volume No. : 23
Issue No. : 11
Author : Mondal, D., G. C. D. Adamson, et al.
Printed Year : 2008
No of Pages  :  2999-3009
Description : 

Calculation of excess disease burden for As exposed populations is becoming increasingly
important to enable  quantitative estimation of the impacts of various As mitigation
options. There are several methods by which such calculations may be carried out. In this
study, two methods, recently applied to estimating groundwater As-related health risks in
southern Asia, to estimate disease burden arising from lung, bladder and liver cancer from
As exposure for an As-effected area of West Bengal have been compared. Both utilized calculated distributions of exposure of the studied population to As from groundwater.
Method  (I) then entailed calculating disease burden by combining published background
rates for death and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and standard mortality ratios
(SMRs) for excess health impacts related to As exposure, whilst for Method (II). disease
burden from As exposure was estimated using the basic DALY formula, combined with
incidence rates based on the NRC multistage Weibull model. Dose-response data for both
methods were based on Studies in Taiwan.
When the same dose-response model was used for both methods, the two methods were
broadly comparable, agreeing to within a factor of 4 for both deaths and DALYs. Much
larger differences, up to a factor of 40, were noted when SMRs from different previous
studies were utilized by Method  (1). Thus, the death and DALYs calculations are most
sensitive to the choice of dose-response model and less so to the calculation method. The
differences are also partly ascribed to different background (i.e. for As non-exposed
populations) rates for lung, bladder and liver cancers between Chakdha block and Taiwan.
However, the differences also highlight some of systematic uncertainties in the application
of epidemiological studies in one part of the world to another, emphasizing that accurate
health risk estimates are likely to be better obtained by large scale systematic surveys of
health outcomes in the study population. Irrespective of the comparability of the results of
the two methods, it is noted that the lack of detailed consideration of confounding factors
such as genetic polymorphisms, smoking and dietary habits, and, in particular, exposure to
As through other routes, notably ingestion of As-bearing rice, may significantly impact on
the accuracy of the results obtained by either method. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.


Title : A component of gamma-radiation-induced cell death in E. coli is programmed and interlinked with activation of caspase-3 and SOS response.
Subject : Arch Microbiol
Volume No. : 195
Issue No. : (8)
Author : Wadhawan, S., S. Gautam, et al.
Printed Year : 2013
No of Pages  : 195(8): 545-557
Description : 

The current study deals with the molecular mechanism of radiation-induced cell death (RICD) in Escherichia coli. Irradiated E. coli cells displayed markers similar to those found in eukaryotic programmed cell death (PCD) such as caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine externalization. RICD was found to be suppressed upon pretreatment with sublethal concentrations of rifampicin or chloramphenicol, indicating the requirement of de novo gene expression. RICD was also found to be inhibited by cell permeable inhibitors of caspase-3 or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, indicating the involvement of PCD during RICD in E. coli. Radiation-induced SOS response was alleviated as observed with decrease in LexA level and also reduced cell filamentation frequency in the presence of caspase inhibitor. Further, the inhibitor-mediated rescue was not observed in single-gene knockouts of umuC, umuD, recB and ruvA, the genes which are associated with SOS response. This implies a linkage between SOS response and PCD in radiation-exposed E. coli cells.


Title : A convenient first aid kit for chemical and biological agents and for radiation exposure.
Subject : Journal of Environmental Biology
Volume No. : 33
Issue No. : 3
Author : Vijayaraghavan, R., A. S. Bhaskar, et al.
Printed Year : 2012
No of Pages  : 673-681
Description : 

The chemical and biological warfare agents are extremely toxic in nature. They act rapidly even in very small quantities and death may occur in minutes. Hence, physical and medical protection must be provided immediately to save life or avoid serious injury. A first aid kit has thus been developed for providing immediate relief from chemical and biological warfare agents (FAKCBW) with the objective of easy detection, personal decontamination, antidote for chemical warfare agents (like nerve agents, sulphur mustard, phosgene, cyanide, radiation exposure and bacterial agents), along with basic medication aid for pain, fever and inflammation. The kit box also includes a user friendly handbook with a simple standard operating procedure. In addition, the kit is rugged to withstand normal jerks, vibration and is water-proof.


Title : A microfocus X-ray fluorescence beamline at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation facility.
Subject : J Synchrotron Radiat
Volume No. : 20
Issue No. : (Pt 2)
Author : Tiwari, M. K., P. Gupta, et al.
Printed Year : 2013
No of Pages  : 386-389
Description : 

A microfocus X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy beamline (BL-16) at the Indian synchrotron radiation facility Indus-2 has been constructed with an experimental emphasis on environmental, archaeological, biomedical and material science applications involving heavy metal speciation and their localization. The beamline offers a combination of different analytical probes, e.g. X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray microspectroscopy and total-external-reflection fluorescence characterization. The beamline is installed on a bending-magnet source with a working X-ray energy range of 4-20 keV, enabling it to excite K-edges of all elements from S to Nb and L-edges from Ag to U. The optics of the beamline comprises of a double-crystal monochromator with Si(111) symmetric and asymmetric crystals and a pair of Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors. This paper describes the performance of the beamline and its capabilities with examples of measured results.


Title : A novel hybrid technology for remediation of molasses-based raw effluents.
Subject :  Bioresour Technol
Volume No. : 102
Issue No. : 3
Author : Verma, A. K., C. Raghukumar, et al.
Printed Year : 2011
No of Pages  : 2411-2418
Description : 

A novel three-step technology for treatment of four molasses-based raw industrial effluents, varying in their COD, color and turbidity is reported here. Sequential steps involved in this treatment are; (1) sonication of the effluents, (2) whole-fungal treatment of these by a ligninolytic marine fungus and (3) biosorption of the residual color with heat-inactivated biomass of the same fungus. Sonication reduced the foul odor and turbidity of the effluents. It increased biodegradability of the effluents in the second stage of treatment. Laccase production in the presence of all the four effluents was directly correlated with their decolorization. After the third step, a reduction of 60-80% in color, 50-70% in COD and 60-70% in total phenolics were achieved. Comparative mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated increasing degradation of the effluent components after each stage. Toxicity (LC(50) values) against Artemia larvae was reduced by two to five folds. 


Title : A novel paclitaxel-eluting porous carbon-carbon nanoparticle coated, nonpolymeric cobalt-chromium stent: evaluation in a porcine model
Subject : Catheter Cardiovasc Interv
Volume No. : 
Issue No. : 2006 May
Author : Bhargava BReddy NKKarthikeyan GRaju RMishra SSingh SWaksman RVirmani RSomaraju B
Printed Year : 
No of Pages  : 
Description : 

OBJECTIVES:
We aimed to evaluate the response of porcine coronary arteries to a novel paclitaxel-eluting porous carbon-carbon nanoparticle coated, nonpolymeric cobalt chromium stent.
BACKGROUND:
Polymer based drug-eluting stents significantly reduce restenosis. However, the indefinite presence of polymer is thought to initiate and sustain inflammation and contribute to the occurrence of late complications. METHODS: Sixteen carbon-carbon coated, nonpolymeric cobalt chromium stents with two different doses of paclitaxel (eight of each were implanted in porcine coronary arteries. In addition, eight cobalt chromium stents coated with a biodegradable polymer were also studied. Animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after stent implantation and histomorphometric analysis was performed. Results were compared among the three groups of stents. RESULTS: The cobalt chromium stents coated with carbon-carbon with low and medium doses of paclitaxel both showed acceptable performance characteristics, with respect to endothelialization, neointimal hyperplasia, percentage diameter stenosis, inflammatory response, and tendency to fibrin deposition, when compared to historical data with the Cypher stent. On the other hand, the stents coated with poly(lactide and poly(lactide-co-glycolide biodegradable polymers and 0.7 microg/mm2 paclitaxel showed poor performance. There was a significant tendency to poor endothelialization, greater neointimal hyperplasia, percentage diameter stenosis, greater inflammatory response, and tendency to fibrin deposition (P < 0.01 for all parameters. CONCLUSIONS:
This preclinical evaluation demonstrates the safety and efficacy of a novel cobalt chromium stent with a carbon-carbon coating and low and medium doses of paclitaxel


Title : A phase II, multicenter, open- label randomized study of motesanib or bevacizumab in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer.
Subject : Annals of Oncology
Volume No. : 22
Issue No. : 9
Author :  Blumenschein, G. R., F. Kabbinavar, et al.
Printed Year : 2011
No of Pages  : 2057-2067
Description : 

Background: This phase II study estimated the difference in objective response rate
(ORR) among patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer
(NSCLC) receiving  paclitaxel-carboplatin (CP) plus motesanib or bevacizumab.
Patients and methods: Chemotherapy-naive patients (N = 186) were randomized 1: 1: 1
to receive CP plus motesanib 125 mg once daily (qd) (arm A), motesanib 75 mg twice
daily (b.i.d.) 5 days on/2 days off  (arm B), or bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks
(q3w) (arm C). The primary end point was ORR (per RECIST). Other end points
included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), motesanib
pharmacokinetics, and adverse events (AEs).
Results: ORRs in the three arms were as follows: arm A, 30% (95% confidence interval
18% to 43%); arm B, 23% (13% to 36%); and arm C, 37% (25% to 50%). Median PFS
in arm A was 7.7 months, arm B 5.8 months, and arm C 8.3 months; median OS for arm
A was 14.0 months, arm B 12.8 months, and arm C 14.0 months. Incidence of AEs was
greater in arms A and B than in arm C. More grade 5 AEs not attributable to disease
progression occurred in arm B (n = 10) than in arms A (n = 4) and C (n = 4). Motesanib
plasma C(max) and C(min) values were consistent with its pharmacokinetic properties
observed in previous studies.
Conclusions: The efficacy of 125 mg qd motesanib or bevacizumab plus CP was
estimated to be comparable. Toxicity was higher but manageable in both motesanib
arms. Efficacy  and tolerability of motesanib 125 mg qd plus CP in advanced
nonsquamous NSCLC are being further investigated in a phase III study.